Information technology networks interconnect computers to share files, data and other resources. They use a system of rules known as communication protocols to transmit information using physical and wireless technologies. These networks are taught in degree programs that teach information technology.

A network topology is the way that a network is constructed to create a connection between devices and systems in different ways, including bus, ring, mesh, fully connected (or complete), star, hierarchical, and tree. These structures have different advantages, disadvantages, and costs for the company that utilizes them. A topology may be logical or physical and could be a private or public one.

In a computer network, the central component, such as an exchange or hub, connects to other computers which send and receive messages. These computers are referred to as nodes and the central component is referred to as a server. This is among the most commonly used configurations for networks, but it comes with a few drawbacks for instance, the possibility of a single cable failing, which can stop communications.

A network server is a computer that stores files and software that are shared by many users on the network. Servers are typically based on the client-server model, where the clients run their desktop applications and servers process data in real-time. As businesses require more access to their data, the IT staff might be required to design a high-availability cluster capable of processing data in a redundant and resilient manner to continue to function even in the event of a single interruption.